Coronavirus Dwell Updates: World Cases Whisk 10 Million

Vice President Mike Pence asserts that increased testing explains a surge in cases, however experts and proof negate otherwise. Taiwan holds a Delight Parade in enhance of of us that would per chance’t.

Lovely Now

A day of bleak milestones as the option of confirmed cases surpassed 10 million and the option of deaths merely kept climbing,


Credit rating…Bruno Kelly/Reuters

500,000 global deaths are reported as the field’s case entire reaches 10 million.

The global entire of deaths handed 500,000 on Sunday, essentially essentially based on a Modern York Times database, whereas the option of confirmed cases surpassed 10 million.

The grim markers had been hit as countries around the field fight to indulge in interplay fresh infections from reaching runaway ranges whereas simultaneously making an attempt to emerge from painful lockdowns.

In April, roughly a month after the World Health Groupdeclared the outbreak a plague, deaths topped 100,000. In early Can also merely, the figure climbed to 250,000. Now it has doubled in lower than two months.

Bigger thana quarter of all known deathsindulge in been within the United States.

The option of confirmed infections — which took about 40 days to double —shall be substantially underestimated, public successfully being officials negate.Recordsdata launchedfinal week by the Centers for Illness Adjust and Prevention indicated that the valid figures in plenty of areas are doubtlessly 10 times as excessive as reported.

The Times has additionally came upon underestimates within the decent loss of lifetallies within the United Statesandin greater than a dozen assorted countries. Shrimp testing availability has in most cases made it advanced to relate that the virus turned into the put off of loss of life.

Within the United States, early hot spots emerged within the Northeast, in particular the Modern York metropolitan put, however the fresh surge has befell essentially within the South and the West, forcing some states to retreat from reopening plans.

Assorted countries, in particular Brazil and India, are additionally being hit with a monumental wave of most up to date infections.

And whereas dozens of countries that took early steps to indulge in and monitor the pandemic indulge in been in a bunch of dwelling to govern the virus internal their borders, experts distress that fatigue with lockdowns and social distancing has allowed the virus to spread with renewed intensity all over many corners of the field.

Texas and Florida reach dangerous turning choices.


Credit rating…Tony Gutierrez/Associated Press

As the Texas governor warned that the virus had taken a “very swift and a if fact be told dangerous turn,” Vice President Mike Pence entreated of us to wear masks all by a visit to the voice on Sunday.

Gov. Greg Abbott mentioned the scramble of sure Covid-19 assessments had risen to greater than 13 percent from lower than 4 percent within the past month and that it turned into an “fear bell” for the residents of Texas.

Mr. Abbott made the grim evaluate after assembly with Mr. Pence andDeborah Birx, the coordinator of the White Dwelling Coronavirus Project Pressure. Mr. Pence and Dr. Birx joined the governor in urging all Texans to screen their faces and steer sure of stop contact in crowds.

“I’m if fact be told appealing to every Texan to wear a conceal,” Dr. Birx mentioned. “I’m merely right here if fact be told to ask one and all of them to wear masks, each one in all them to wear a conceal.”

Mr. Pence, who wore a conceal all by his visit, refused to straight answer a matter about whether President Trump’s refusal towear one — and his assertion that folk that give up are making a political statement against him — turned into to blame for the excessive numbers of Texans and others who give up no longer wear masks as soon as they’re in crowded areas.

Dr. Ben Carson, the secretary of housing and concrete pattern, who turned into at the briefing with the vp, perceived to indulge in interplay discipline with Mr. Trump’s conceal stance, asserting, “We merely need to disseminate that recordsdata, each person in their sphere of affect, and to be the instance themselves.”

Even with cases skyrocketing within the voice, the vp supplied Texansreassurances.

“Daily, we are sooner or later nearer to the day we put this pandemic within the past,” Mr. Pence mentioned. “And after we give up, with this governor and this president, we’ll raise Texas and The USA assist greater and better than ever sooner than.”

Governors in some states indulge in complained that the federal government has did now not present the resources they desired to examine for the virus and treat sufferers.On Sunday, Mr. Pence pledged that the federal government would encourage Texas and numerous states seeing a fresh surge in cases.

“We’re going to follow you to be obvious Texas, and your successfully being care device in Texas, indulge in the resources and offers and the personnel to fulfill this moment,” he mentioned.

Mr. Pence and Ms. Birx are scheduled to head to Florida and Arizona within the days ahead to preserve a similar briefings with voice officials.

In Florida, almost about 20 percent of of us from the ages 25 to 34 who test for the virusare coming assist sure, Gov. Ron DeSantis mentioned Sunday. The pattern has been constant even outside the southern Florida hot spots, he mentioned.

Florida reported 8,530 fresh sure outcomes on Sunday, down a tiny bit after several days of single-day records. However all by the past three days, the option of infections has risen almost about 24 percent, essentially essentially based on a Modern York Times database. The surge is mostly attributed to childhood socializing, Mr. DeSantis mentioned.

So many bars had been breaking social distancing guidelines that the voice made up our minds on Friday to prohibit them from selling alcohol. However Mr. DeSantis acknowledged that he fears the voice’s decision may per chance per chance backfire.

“They’re youthful of us, they’re going to give up what they’re going to give up,” he mentioned. “I’d moderately indulge in those locations delivery and complying — it’s less dangerous than what a style of those childhood will discontinuance up doing.”

Mr. DeSantis mentioned that as exterior temperatures upward thrust, more Floridians learn about relief indoors, where the transmission menace is increased. The one-most attention-grabbing vector stays the dwelling, he mentioned.

Florida is amongst the states, admire Nevada and South Carolina, that put single-day records this weekend. While the hospitalization charge inched up, the loss of life charge has remained exact, on yarn of so a style of those now testing sure are younger and quite a lot of give up no longer indulge in any symptoms. The option of Covid-19 sufferers on ventilators is down 33 percent within the past two months.

Mr. Pence and the nation’s top successfully being decent, Alex M. Azar II, persevered to negate on Sunday that reopenings in plenty of states had been no longer inflicting the spirited rises in coronavirus cases, however moderately that increased testing turned into uncovering an increasing number of infections.Experts says right here’s no longer the case.

“Thanks to the public-non-public partnership that President Trump initiated, we are actually in a bunch of dwelling to examine anyone within the nation that may per chance per chance settle on a test who comes ahead,” Mr. Pence mentioned.

However in some states, residents indulge in been grew to become a ways flung from testing net sites that indulge in reached skill.

Positivity rates are climbing in some U.S. states. Here’s why that’s troubling.


Credit rating…Christopher Lee for The Modern York Times

It’s no longer merely case counts that are going up. In plenty of locations, one more statistic is additionally trending the inappropriate device: A rising share of coronavirus assessments are coming assist sure.

In Los Angeles County, officials mentioned Saturday that the positivity charge there had risen to 9 percent; two weeks ago it turned into averaging 5.8 percent. In Texas, the scramble climbed above 13 percent on Friday; it turned into around 7 percent two weeks ago.

Arizona’s positivity rates indulge in been climbing gradually since early Can also merely and indulge in been averaging above 20 percent for a week, essentially essentially based onfigures compiled by Johns Hopkins College.

Public successfully being experts hit upon positivity rates, along with hospitalization rates, deaths and numerous key indicators, to procure a sense of how prevalent the virus is in a command metropolis or voice,and how fleet it’s spreading.

“The positivity charge is a compulsory marker for how a voice’s testing goes, and for how the voice is doing,” mentioned Dr. Thomas Inglesby, the director of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg Center for Health Safety.

The figures, however, can vary very a lot from one set of dwelling to 1 more thanks to major variations in testing availability and standards within the system the information is compiled, amongst assorted components. All else being equal, more restricted testing may per chance per chance be expected to yield better positivity rates than long-established testing would.

What’s most needed about positivity rates is within the occasion that they are transferring up, it’s a magnificent suggestion that the pandemic is gaining strength — and that all at as soon as rising case counts are no longer merely the final consequence of having performed more assessments, as President Trump and Vice President Pence indulge in argued fair no longer too long ago.

The C.D.C. standards for every stage of reopening from a lockdown contain a requirement that positivity rates decline for 14 days. In step with Johns Hopkins,easiest 12 statesreported decrease sensible positivity rates final week than the week sooner than.

The components additionally demand long-established availability of testing, however in hot-field states admire Arizona, Florida and Texas, many folk indulge in had a energetic time getting tested, with long traces and crowding that raises tensions and the menace of infection.

“Pushing, yelling, ZERO social distancing enforced,”one Houston resident wrote on Twitter. Two testing net sites at Houston stadiums reached skill and needed to turn of us away merely a few hours after opening on Saturday,essentially essentially based onthe local successfully being division.

In Florida, the first car turned into on line at 12: 30 a.m. Saturday at the Orange County Conference Center in Orlando,essentially essentially based onthe Florida Association of Public Recordsdata Officers, although testing did no longer initiate there except 9 a.m. At a bunch of dwelling in Jacksonville, the testing line turned into bring to a halt within the early afternoon, sooner than closing time, the affiliationmentioned on Twitter.

Traces of automobiles at force-up net sites in Phoenixstretched up to a couple miles, and the voice’s biggest laboratory purchased twice as many samples on Friday because it may most likely per chance job.

Coronavirus cases nationwide indulge in risen 65 percent over the past two weeks. Bigger than 42,000 fresh cases had been reported on Saturday, at the side of single-day document excessive numbers in Florida, Nevada and South Carolina.

The governors of Modern York and Washington sharply criticize the Trump administration.


Credit rating…Chris Creese for The Modern York Times

Two governors who indulge in had in most cases melancholy relationships with the White Dwelling all by the pandemic expressed harsh reactions to the administration’s insistence on deferring to local governments in set of dwelling of offering powerful national insurance policies to indulge in the virus at a time when outbreaks are escalating in a option of states.

Vice President Mike Pence strongly defended the systemon the CBS notify “Face the Nation,” whereas attributing the upward thrust in cases to increased testing and irresponsible behavior by childhood.

“One of the most formula of the genius of The USA is the concept of federalism, of voice and local adjust,” Mr. Pence mentioned. “We’ve made it sure that we would per chance like to defer to governors. We wish to defer to local officials and of us may per chance per chance serene hear to them.”

Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo characterised that device as negligenton the NBC program “Meet the Press.”“They’re in most cases in denial referring to the discipline,” he mentioned. “They don’t would prefer to notify the American of us the real fact. And they don’t would prefer to indulge in any federal response, rather than supporting the states.”

Mr. Cuomo mentioned that Modern York, as soon as a global epicenter, had reported 5 deaths on Sunday, the bottom number since the initiate of the pandemic. However he mentioned that he turned into afraid that travelers from states with better infection rates may per chance per chance reverse his voice’s energetic-received beneficial properties.

Gov. Jay Inslee of Washington expressed frustration at the president’s unwillingness to wear masks or to give up more to relief his supporters to wear them. “In its set of tweeting the assorted day referring to the importance of masks, he tweeted about monuments,” he mentionedon “Face the Nation.”“We desire a president who will care more about dwelling American citizens and no more about dead confederates.”

Speaker Nancy Pelosi mentioned Sunday that she supported a federal mandate that each one American citizens need to wear masks. “In fact long slack for that,” Ms. Pelosi, Democrat of California, mentionedon ABC’s “This Week.”She entreated Mr. Trump to initiate carrying one in public, asserting: “Real males wear masks. Be an instance to the nation.”

The successfully being and human products and services secretary, Alex M. Azar II, illustriouson “Meet the Press”that Mr. Pence had donned a conceal for a public look on Friday, “although he doesn’t need to within the sense that each person around him is tested, he’s in a bubble.”

President Trump and folk around him “are tested continuously,” he mentioned, reiterating that the federal government recommends that folk wear face coverings within the occasion that they can’t practice social distancing.

Outbreaks from restaurants grow as more U.S. states allow indoor dining.


Credit rating…Saul Martinez for The Modern York Times

As more restaurants and bars delivery for indoor dining, energetic-to-mark outbreaks are prompting warnings from public successfully being officials in several states.

In Michigan, greater than 70 cases had been linked to Harper’s Restaurant and Brewpub in East Lansing. In Alaska, the Seward Alehouse closed and encouraged customers to procure tested after an employee gotten smaller the virus.

And in Kansas, cases had been linked to the Wild Horse Saloon in Topeka and a bar called the Hawk in Lawrence. Sonia Jordan of Lawrence-Douglas County Public Health mentioned her division launched minute print of the Hawk outbreak on yarn of “we’re no longer assured in being in a bunch of dwelling to title each person who turned into there.”

Over and over, restaurant outbreaks are contained to a handful of known cases. However in fresh weeks, they’ve additionally been the online sites of more long-established infections. As a minimum 100 cases had been tied to the Tigerland nightlife district in Baton Rouge, La.

In Michigan, where dozens of the of us contaminated at Harper’s Restaurant had been between the ages of 18 and 23, officials entreated others who visited the industrial to isolate themselves.

“There are per chance more of us contaminated with Covid-19 no longer yet identified,” Linda S. Vail, the Ingham County successfully being officer, mentioned in a press begin. “We need encourage from of us that went to Harper’s all by the publicity dates so as that we’ll present the selection to indulge in the outbreak. We need each person exposed to discontinuance dwelling.”

In California on Saturday, the voice ordered bars to prevent in some cities, amongst them Los Angeles and Fresno, and instructed that they stop in others, at the side of Sacramento, Contra Costa and Santa Barbara.

The rapidly identification of restaurant clusters contrasts with the continuing uncertainty about infections stemming from protests against racially biased policing, which indulge in been held ingreater than 2,000 U.S. citiessince the loss of life of George Floyd in police custody on Can also merely 25. The Times has reached out to dozens of cities that indulge in had monumental protests, finding some minute case groupings however no major clusters.

To this level, the hassle has came upon about 50 infections linked to protests, at the side of participants of the National Guard in Nebraska, Minnesota and Washington, D.C.

Ukrainians are caught in their nation’s warring east on yarn of they’ll’t procure admission to a quarantine app.


Credit rating…Yevgen Honcharenko/EPA, by strategy of Shutterstock

A rule in Ukraine that requires travelers to self-quarantine has had a elegant abolish, stranding dozens of of us in a buffer put internal the war zone within the nation’s east.

Ukraine has been combating a Russian-backed uprising within the east since 2014, which device assist settled exact into a stalemate along a line of trenches separated by a no man’s land pocked with landmines, snipers and artillery shelling. Every side maintains its indulge in checkpoints.

Prior to the pandemic, Ukrainians crossed that no man’s land greater than a million times a month, in most cases for reasons as uncomplicated as gathering pensions, although some additionally indulge in household and property everywhere in the war zone.

However this week, a neighborhood of civilians who handed by the separatists’ territory had been faced with Ukraine’s requirement that fresh arrivals quarantine for two weeks, either by checking exact into a successfully being facility or staying dwelling whereas the utilization of a bunch-monitoring app.

About 50 of us making an attempt to pass — at the side of pregnant females, aged of us and teenagers — either did no longer indulge in smartphones to download the app or, in some cases, had been unable to determine easy suggestions to use it. The separatists declined to let them assist into their territory, leaving them stranded, with no technique to quarantine as Ukraine required.

“Dozens of of us indulge in needed to camp out, in some cases in a single day, within the middle of an brisk militia conflict, merely on yarn of they didn’t indulge in a smartphone to download an app,” Laura Mills, Europe and Central Asia researcher at Human Rights Understand,mentionedin a press begin.

By Friday, 17 had agreed to relate exact into a successfully being facility in government-held territory to walk the buffer zone. Othersmanaged to exitafter relatives or volunteers from nongovernmental groups handed them smartphones at a checkpoint, mentioned Denys Yaroshenko, a visual show unit for a nonprofit organization within the put called Lovely to Protection. Separatists finally allowed others to reenter. No one turned into harmed, however it’s unclear what number of dwell.

Ukrainian authorities indulge in supplied tents and meals for people who are serene stranded.

At a Houston megachurch, masks had been sparse, however so had been worshipers.


Credit rating…Erin Trieb for The Modern York Times

The 4,500-seat fancy middle at the Second Baptist Church in Houston boomed on Sunday with up to date Christian rock tune all by its 11 a.m. carrier, however plenty of the faithful had been staying away.

It turned into the a similar in Bible stare nearby, where attendance had dropped from the week sooner than, a couple lamented as they left the gathering, carrying masks in their pockets in set of dwelling of carrying them. Thousands of church participants indulge in been selecting to abet online, a church decent mentioned.

With case counts soaring, successfully being facility intensive-care items filling up and a “crimson alert” declared forHouston final week, easiest about one-fifth of the identical old crowd shall be came upon at Second Baptist on Sunday.

Of us that did abet mostly had been no longer carrying masks, and did no longer seem in unhappy health at ease.

The church recommends maskshowever does no longer require them, and it has felt compelled to ask attendees to respect the option of of us that give up engage to wear them.

“I’m no longer sick, we’re no longer sick,” mentioned Christina Barlow, 43, whose household of 15 childhood is successfully-known within the congregation. “It’s merely a topic of private option.”

Attendees ragged and younger, those with childhood and folk with out, gathered in household circles or with chums, responsive to the anxious swirl of recordsdata referring to the metropolis, however no longer overly mad by participating in a monumental indoor gathering of the model that stays banned in plenty of states.

“While you’re uncomfortable, discontinuance dwelling,” mentioned Jonathan Bonck, 33, who attended along with his wife. Neither wore masks. “Of us are easy, they discontinuance apart,” he added. Their 2-yr-ragged spent the carrier within the church’s child care middle with a handful of assorted younger childhood.

The church took peril to preserve social distancing. Every assorted row of seats turned into roped off; ushers enforced spacing between families; there indulge in been floor markings by the elevators and toilets, and at the church’s successfully-staffed espresso shop, indicating six-foot spacing. Many of the employees wore masks.

After the 9: 30 a.m. carrier, a team of 20 of us descended on the predominant fancy put, armed with machines that sprayed a disinfectant mist sooner than the 11 a.m. carrier. The job took a tiny bit over 10 minutes.

A spokesman for the church welcomed a reporter to the carrier however declined to talk on the document.

As some lament missing out on their first Delight march, a Taiwan gathering reveals enhance.


Credit rating…Amr Alfiky/The Modern York Times

This weekend would robotically indulge in been a time for monumental Delight marches, parades and events. And in Modern York Metropolis, Sunday’s events would indulge in included a out of the ordinary increased50th anniversary of the metropolis’s Delight Marchhad it no longer fallen all by the coronavirus pandemic.

In its set, with public life easiest gradually resuming amid the pandemic — and restrictions being tightened in some locations where cases indulge in spiked in fresh days — these events had been replaced with minute gatherings and digital events, at the side of a 24-hour online occasion streamed on YouTube and theWorld Delight net pages.

And whereas the Delight celebrations are no longer alone in being called off, few assorted events are as out of the ordinary about being seen — by each person. So this yr, some L.G.B.T.Q. of us are missing out on a compulsory moment of visibility and acceptance: their first Delight.

“It’s something that’s so central to our identities as L.G.B.T.Q. of us,” mentioned Fred Lopez, the govt. director ofSan Francisco Delight. “To be conscious that time after we had been in a bunch of dwelling to streak hand in hand with a boyfriend or a crush, even amongst hundreds or hundreds or hundreds and hundreds of of us, is in most cases exciting.”




‘This Year is Undoubtedly Special’: Heaps of Celebrate Indulge in Taiwan

Of us gathered in Taipei to celebrate Delight as events everywhere in the field had been canceled thanks to the coronavirus outbreak. Taiwan has largely kept the virus at bay, with easiest 446 recorded cases.

I mediate this yr is in most cases special on yarn of I know that the remaining of the field, Delight has been canceled thanks to the epidemic. And I mediate being in a bunch of dwelling to be in a nation lawful now that’s so, that’s in a bunch of dwelling to address it and serene be in a bunch of dwelling to indulge in these roughly events, especially with this many folk, I mediate it’s if fact be told impressive.

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Of us gathered in Taipei to celebrate Delight as events everywhere in the field had been canceled thanks to the coronavirus outbreak. Taiwan has largely kept the virus at bay, with easiest 446 recorded cases.Credit ratingCredit rating…An Rong Xu for The Modern York Times

An in-particular person Delight gatheringturned into held on Sunday in Taiwan, however, as the self-governing island has largely kept the coronavirus at bay, with merely 446 recorded cases and seven deaths since its first case turned into reported in January.

A giant rainbow flag led a procession all over Liberty Square, a monumental plaza in central Taipei, in an tournament that Darien Chen, one in all the organizers, mentioned he hoped would raise consolation to the millions around the field who may per chance per chance now not abet monumental gatherings thanks to the pandemic.

“We if fact be told hope we’ll present the selection to raise some hope to the overall L.G.B.T. neighborhood who can’t march for themselves this yr,” he mentioned.

Yemeni militias are killing and driving out migrants, mostly Ethiopians, scapegoating them as virus carriers.


Credit rating…Mohammed Hamoud/Getty Photos

Yemeni militiamen rumbled up to a neighborhood of migrants in a settlement one morning, firing their machine weapons at Ethiopians caught within the middle of any individual else’s war. The militiamen shouted: Hang your coronavirus and leave the nation, or face loss of life.

“The sound of the bullets turned into admire yell that wouldn’t give up,” mentioned Kedir Jenni, 30, an Ethiopian waiter who fled the settlement stop to the Saudi border in northern Yemen that morning in early April. “Ladies and men procure shot next to you. You mediate about them die and switch on.”

This scene and others had been recounted in phone interviews with a half of dozen migrants now in Saudi prisons. Although their accounts may per chance per chance now not be independently verified, human rights groups indulge in corroborated a similar incidents.

The Houthis, the Iran-backed militia that controls most of northern Yemen, indulge in pushed out hundreds of migrants at gunpoint over the past three months, blaming them for spreading the coronavirus, and dumped them within the barren region with out meals or water.









Gulf of Aden


Addis Ababa

500 miles

5 years of war between the Houthis and the Saudi-led coalition propping up Yemen’s government indulge in ransacked the nation, the poorest within the Center East, starving and killing its of us.

Humanitarian officials and researchers negate that the African migrant workers whotraverse Yemenevery yr endure torture, rape, extortion, bombs and bullets in their desperation to be triumphant in Saudi Arabia. And this spring, when the pandemic made them scapegoats for Yemen’s troubles, they lost even that slim hope.

“Covid is fair one tragedy internal so many assorted tragedies that these migrants are facing,” mentioned Afrah Nasser, a Yemen researcher at Human Rights Understand.

St. Patrick’s Cathedral in Modern York reopens for public Mass.


Credit rating…Jason Szenes/EPA, by strategy of Shutterstock

AsModern York Metropolis’s gradual reopeninghas been rolled out in fresh weeks, of us indulge in begun returning to restaurants, bars, offices and hair salons. And on Sunday, the metropolis’s iconic St. Patrick’s Cathedral opened to the public for Mass for the first time since lockdown measures had been imposed.

Attendance at the cathedral — the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Modern York — turned into restricted to 25 percent skill, and folk level to had been discipline to strict successfully being and safety guidelines. The cathedral turned into additionallysanitized to prepare for the Heaps, scheduled for10: 30 a.m., 1 p.m. and 4 p.m. E.D.T.

Theclosing of properties of fancy around the realmall by the pandemic has been painful for people who may per chance per chance in most cases learn about both solace and neighborhood there, in particular on spiritual holidays.

It has additionally been a discipline of heated debate, with some arguing that the closingsviolate freedom of faithand others cautious of the public successfully being menace since enclosed spaces with monumental numbers of of us in stop contact indulge infueled outbreaks.

Many locations of fancy indulge in hosted products and services and events online at some level of the pandemic, and St. Patrick’s Cathedral will proceed to give up so with its Heaps. When it turned into closed all by Easter, its Palm Sunday carrier attracted greater than 100,000 viewers.

“We give up leave out the of us within the pews,” Jennifer Pascual, the cathedral’s tune director, mentioned at the time. “It’s roughly uncommon to be doing Mass and doing it to an empty cathedral. You stare available and there’s nobody there.”

The style to use public toilets as safely as seemingly.

As of us initiate venturing out into public more, listed below are some suggestions for minimizing the menace of being exposed to the coronavirus in public restrooms.

Reporting turned into contributed by Christopher Cameron, Rebecca Chao, Melina Delkic, Nicholas Fandos, Tess Felder, Jeffrey Gettleman, J. David Goodman, Rebecca Halleck, Chris Horton, Shawn Hubler, Sheila Kaplan, Sarah Kliff, Andrew E. Kramer, Pierre-Antoine Louis, Patrick J. Lyons, Zach Montague, Raphael Minder, Tiksa Negeri, Aimee Ortiz, Elian Peltier, Frances Robles, Michael Shear, Mitch Smith, Maria Varenikova, Michael Wines, Vivian Yee, Carl Zimmer and Karen Zraick.



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